- The Lockerbie Case - Not About The Victims, It`s About Destroying The Jamahiriya / صحيفة الجماهير / Lockerbie case, Libya News - December 1997 - Report * Official UK Investigation Report. Read Some Truth About Lockerbie!




redefining law / صحيفة الجماهير / Lockerbie case, Libya News - December 1997 - Report * Official UK Investigation Report

Appendix G - Mach stem shock wave effects - (Lockerbie Plane Crash)

Mach stem shock wave effects

1. Introduction

An explosive detonation within a fuselage, in reasonably close proximity to the skin, will produce a high intensity shock wave which will propagate outwards from the centre of detonation. On reaching the inner surface of the fuselage skin, energy will partially be absorbed in shattering, deforming and accelerating the skin and stringer material in its path. Much of the remaining energy will be transmitted, as a shock wave, through the skin and into the atmosphere but a significant amount of energy will be returned as a reflected shock wave, which will travel back into the fuselage interior where it will interact with the incident shock to produce Mach stem shocks - re-combination shock waves which can have pressures and velocities of propagation greater than the incident shock.

The Mach stem phenomenon is significant for two reasons. Firstly, it gives rise (for relatively small charge sizes) to a geometric limitation on the area of skin material which the incident shock wave can shatter. This geometric limitation occurs irrespective of charge size (within the range of charge sizes considered realistic for the Flight PA103 scenario), and thus provides a means of calculating the standoff distance of the explosive charge from the fuselage skin. Secondly, the Mach stem may have been a significant factor in transmitting explosive energy through the fuselage cavities, producing damage at a number of separate sites remote from the source of the explosion.

2. Mach stem shock wave formation 

A Mach stem shock is formed by the interaction between the incident and reflected shock waves, resulting in a coalescing of the two waves to produce a new, single, shock wave. If an explosive charge is detonated in a free field at some standoff distance from a reflective surface, then the incident shock wave expands spherically until the wave front contacts the reflective surface, when that element of the wave surface will be reflected back (Figure G-1). 

The local angle between the spherical wave front and the reflecting surface is zero at the point where the reflecting surface intersects the normal axis, resulting in wave reflection directly back towards the source and maximum reflected overpressure at the reflective surface. The angle between the wave front and the reflecting surface at other locations increases with distance from the normal axis, producing a corresponding increase in the oblique angle of reflection of the wave element, with a corresponding reduction in the reflected overpressure. (To a first order of approximation, explosive shock waves can be considered to follow similar reflection and refraction paths to light waves, ref: "Geometric Shock Initiation of Pyrotechnics and Explosives", R Weinheimer, McDonnel Douglas Aerospace Co.) Beyond some critical (conical) angle about the normal axis, typically around 40 degrees, the reflected and incident waves coalesce to form Mach stem shock waves which, effectively, bisect the angle between the incident and reflected waves, and thus travel approximately at right angles to the normal axis, i.e.parallel with the reflective surface (detail "A", figure G-1).

3. Estimation of charge standoff distance from the fuselage skin

Within the constraint of the likely charge size used on Flight PA103, calculations suggested that the initial Mach stem shock wave pressure close to the region of Mach stem formation (i.e. the shock wave face-on pressure, acting at right angles to the skin), was likely to be more than twice that of the incident shock wave, with a velocity of propagation perhaps 25% greater. However, the Mach stem out-of-plane pressure, i.e.the pressure felt by the reflecting surface where the Mach stem touches it, would have been relatively low and insufficient to shatter the skin material. 

Therefore, provided that the charge had sufficient energy to produce skin shatter within the conical central region where no Mach stems form, the size of the shattered region would be a function mainly of charge standoff distance, and charge weight would have had little influence. Consequently, it was possible to calculate the charge standoff distance required to produce a given size of shattered skin from geometric considerations alone. On this basis, a charge standoff distance of approximately 25 to 27 inches would have resulted in a shattered region of some 18 to 20 inches in diameter, broadly comparable to the size of the shattered region evident on the three-dimensional wreckage reconstruction.

Whilst the analytical method makes no allowance for the effect of the IED casing, or any other baggage or container structure interposed between the charge and the fuselage skin, the presence of such a barrier would have tended to absorb energy rather than re-direct the transmitted shock wave; therefore its presence would have been more critical in terms of charge size than of position. Certainly, the standoff distance predicted by this method was strikingly similar to the figure of 25 inches derived independently from the container and fuselage reconstructions.



Libya, Lockerbie & Lies The struggle by one country against the forces of international oppression

LLibya, Lockerbie & Lies The struggle by one country against the forces of international oppression  - By SUSAN BRYCE  ::::: It was the evening of 21 December 1988, when Pan Am flight 103 exploded in mid air overhead Dean’s Cross in the English Lake District and crashed at Lockerbie in Scotland. All 259 passengers and crew on the plane were killed instantly, and a total of eleven local people also died in the crash... 

                                                                                                                                                                                             >>> Read More <<< 

Investigation Report - Page Links:

SYNOPSIS  *  Appendix A - Personnel involved in the investigation *   Figure B (Appendix B) - Pictures & Documents  *

 Appendix C - Analysis of recorded data  *  Figure C (Appendix C) - Pictures & Documents  *

Appendix D - Critical crack calculations  *  Appendix E - Potential remedial measures  *  

Appendix F - Baggage container examination and reconstruction  *  Figure F (Appendix F) - Pictures & Documents  *

Appendix G - Mach stem shock wave effects  *  

Figure G-1 - (Appendix G-1)  *  More Investigation Images Follow - SOON!

Investigation News & Info`s and Video Material:

Hillary Clinton called for al-Megrahi to be returned to prison in Scotland...  *  Video - Evidence Against C.I.A.  *

Heading over a 2009 post by Michael Meacher MP (UK) on his blog. It reads as follow  *  

Lockerbie dad meets man jailed for bombing  *  Police chief- Lockerbie evidence was faked  *  

UK CALLS FOR LIFTING OF UN SANCTIONS ON LIBYA (2003)  *  Abdelbaset Ali Al-Megrahi - My Story  * 


Video - Abdelbaset Ali Al-Megrahi freed  *  Video - Madsen Aug 2009 - CIA fabricated evidence  *

Video - Mr. Al-Megrahi says truth will come out!  *  Video - Lockerbie Bomber Truth - Part 1 and 2  *  

Audio - George Galloway discusses Lockerbie with Dr Jim Swire  *  Video - Special Event: Lockerbie Case ..with Dr Jim Swire  *

Video - Dr Jim Swire on the death of Megrahi  *  Statement  by Saif Al  Gaddafi to the Release of Abdel-Basset Megrahi  * 

Video - Lockerbie ::: CIA Framing Libya  *  Saif Al Islam Gaddafi: 'We don't want confrontation and aggression  * 

Audio - George Galloway and Chris on the Lockerbie case  *  .>>>>>




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Lockerbie case 

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Lockerbie case 

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Lockerbie case 

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Lockerbie case -  SYNOPSIS

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Lockerbie case -  SYNOPSIS

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Lockerbie case -  SYNOPSIS